Chili or chili pepper chili (chili pepper) is a member of the genus Capsicum. Chili can be used as vegetables and kitchen spices. Spicy taste is very popular in Southeast Asia as a food flavor enhancer. So there is an area that every dish using chili as a flavor enhancer.

Chili is one of the horticultural commodities that are cultivated by many farmers in Indonesia, because it has a high selling price and has several health benefits. One of them functions in controlling cancer because it contains lasparaginase and capcaicin. In addition, vitamin C content is high enough in chili to meet daily needs of everyone, but should be consumed sufficiently to avoid stomach pain. In addition to cooking spices, chili peppers are also used as a mixture of feeding industry and for livestock. Chili or lombok is included in the eggplant eggplant (Solanaceae) and is a plant that is easily grown in the lowlands or in the highlands. Chili plants contain lots of vitamin A and vitamin C and contain capsidiol, which causes spicy flavor and provide warmth when used for spices (kitchen spice).

Chili can be grown easily so it can be used for daily needs Until now has been known more than 12 types of chili. However, the most widely farmed by farmers only a few, namely: cayenne pepper, red chili, peppers, and chilli ornamental. Cayenne pepper consists of white cayenne pepper, cayenne pepper jengki, and chili pepper jemprit. Effort of chili planting is still very profitable for the people of Indonesia. The needs of the Indonesian community will be chili recorded in the range of 3kg / capita / year. If the population of Indonesia as much as 250 million, means per year required as much as 750,000 tons. In 2009, chili production in Indonesia reached 7.04 tons / ha, while in 2010 chili production in Indonesia reached 3.83 tons / ha. One of the obstacles to the decline of pepper production is the presence of diseases that can attack since the plants are planted until the crop is harvested. 

Disturbance of disease in chili plants is very complex, both in the rainy season and dry season. It can even cause considerable losses. Things that can cause direct losses to farmers, among others, the existence of diseases that can reduce the quantity and quality of results, increase production costs, and reduce farming ability Antracknose disease is a disease that often attacks chili plants. One of the causes of anthracnose disease is the fungus Colletotrichum capsici (Syd.) Butler & Bisby. Usually anthracnose attack the leaves of chili plants, but can also attack the fruit of chili plants. Symptoms on the leaves of chlorosis, and in the form of small white patches and long growing grows. As for the symptoms on the fruit in the form of small spots that can further grow larger. Spots that are formed are generally curved or slightly concave, and starting from the formation of black fungal aservulus in the middle which usually form a layered circle. An anthracnose attack can occur at any time. But the greatest attack occurs when rainfall begins to rise, while in the dry season, anthracnose disease is rare. Antraknosa can be controlled by planting cayenne cultivars that are resistant to anthracnose disease. Farmers the easiest way to control anthracnose disease is by the use or planting of resistant cultivars, because in this way farmers do not provide much additional (extra) costs, as well as labor to control disease.

Chili is one of the plants that have high economic value. Plants that have high economic value, usually the risk of failure of the plant is also high. Likewise with pepper plants, some pests or pathogens can derail the crop. Sometimes natural disturbance (rain) can also frustrate the harvest.Problems often encountered in the cultivation of chili plants, among others is the decline in quality of chili, which is caused by plant disease.Antraknosa is a common disease found in pepper plants, this disease is an important disease in chili planting.High level of attacks lead to failure of chili pepper . One of the causes of this disease is C. capsici (Syd.) Butler & Bisby. The antraknosapada leaves are chlorotic and white patches that are widespread, whereas early fruit symptoms are blackish brown spots, extends and then causes rotten and tender fruit. Visible black dots consisting of seta and konidia at the center of the spots.

Severe attacks cause the chili dry, wrinkle, and brown. To control the anthracnose disease is needed cultivars of cayenne plants resistant to anthracnose disease, by planting cultivars that are resistant to anthracnose disease. The cultivar cultivation resistant to anthracnose attacks can save power and cost for control and reduction of loss or risk of reduced yields so that the use of resistant types is the best way. The cayenne cultivar used in this study is white cayenne pepper, cayenne pepper jengki, and java cayenne pepper. Each of these cultivars has its own features. White cayenne cultivars have fast growth, while cayenne pepper cultivars have well accumulated capsidiols, and cayenne pepper cultivars can resist C. capsici (Syd.) Butler & bisby but can not suppress the growth of the fungus because capsidiol does not accumulate well. Research conducted by Maryono, has been done to test the cultivar of chilli cultivar by using plastic mulch, but not many studies exist in Lampung by using some cayenne pepper cultivar resistant to anthracnose attack. Therefore, it is necessary to do this research to help farmers to increase the production of chili plants.

Chili has some compounds that are useful for human health. Chili contains antioxidants that serve to keep the body from free radical attack. The largest content of this antioxidant found in green chili. In addition, chili also contains Lasparaginase and Capsaicin which act as anticancer substances. Not only that chili also contains vitamin C high enough that is very beneficial for health. But because it is spicy, chili should be eaten sufficiently just to avoid stomach pain.

Chili seems to have been very popular among us. Of course you are all familiar with this one vegetable varieties. Chili or scientific named Capsicum annum, is a plant of a member of the nightshade family, such as tomatoes, eggplant, potatoes, etc. Chili in cooking is usually used as a spice flavor enhancer, which is very liked by some people. Food will not taste if without chili. Chili is now sold in both dry and powder form

Chili has now been sold in dry or powder form, so we do not have to bother the song to select and store it. If you buy fresh, raw chilies are well marked with bright colors (green, yellow, orange, red depending on the variety), and with a healthy stalk. Avoid buying chili that there are black spots. How to keep fresh chili so durable is stored in the refrigerator by put into a plastic bag, this way will keep the chili fresh for weeks. Dried chili can be stored at room temperature, and in a cool and dark place, and in an airtight container it will last for months. 

Chili (Capsicum sp.) Is a shrub of the eggplant family (Solanaceae) which is known for a long time as a cooking spice. Initially chili plants are wild plants in the forests. Some references mention that chili originated from south america, precisely in bolivia. From there the pepper plant spread to Central America and finally to the whole world.

Historically, the first communities to utilize and grow pepper crops were the inca (south american), the Maya (Central American) and the Aztec (Mexicans) in about 2,500 BC. At that time they used chili as a spice of cooking. The man who first contributed to the spread of the pepper plant was Christophorus Columbus (1451-1506), an Italian sailor who had sailed and landed in the Guanahani mountains, which he later named Salvador Beach in the Bahamas.

In the Caribbean Sea on October 12, 1492, Columbus discovered indigenous peoples in the area utilizing chili as a cooking spice. He then brought pualgn chili seeds to his country for breeding. Chili that brought Columbus to Spain is a type of red pepper (Capsicum annum).

Chili plants first entered Indonesia because brought by portugis sailors. Ferdinand Magelhaens (1480-1521) who made the voyage on the initiative of Spain. In 1519, Magelhaens landed on the island of Maluku. In his voyage through the Atlantic Ocean into the shade of the ocean, he passes through a strait, hereinafter called the Strait of Magellan.

Classification of chili plants

Based on the taxonomic system, pepper plants are classified into:
Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
Subkingdom: Trachebionta (Vascular Plant)
Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produce seed)
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering Plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida (double-dikotil)
Sub Class: Asteridae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae (terong-terongan tribe)
Genus: Capsicum
Species: - Capsicum frutescens (Chili Rawit)

Types of pepper plants

Chili plants include the Solanaceae family (eggplant). Chilli plants are many different types of growth and fruit shape. It is estimated that there are 20 species that mostly live in their home country. Below are the types of pepper plants:

Types of chili in Indonesia

A. Chili pepper
Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) in English is known as Hot pepper or bird's eye chili pepper. In Malay language is known by the name of Chilean rice, red pepper, mira pepper. In Thai language is called Phrik kheenuu. In Chinese it is called La jiao, ye la zi. In japanese language is called Kidachi tougarashi.

Pepper plants have morphology: single leaf, slightly rounded and wide, pointed tip, narrow base, flat edge, pinnate inclination, numerous branching quantities, plant height 50-120 cm, stem-shaped, stemmed, 9.5 cm long, 1.5-5.5 cm wide, green. Flowers out of leaf armpits, star-shaped crowns, single flowers, white, greenish, or purple.

Upright chili, sometimes ducked, rounded eggs, straight or crooked, pointed tip, 1-5 cm long, long stemmed, and spicy taste. Ripe fruit is red. The size of the cayenne pepper is smaller than the large curly or red chili pepper, but more spicy. Has a seed in large quantities, rounded shape, diameter 2-2.5 mm, yellowish. Several types of local cayenne known in Indonesia include:
Small cayenne pepper / chili jemprit: fruit is small and short, more spicy.
White cayenne / chili sheep: the fruit is bigger than chili jemprit, yellowish white color.
Chili pepper celepik: the fruit is bigger than java chilli pepper and smaller than pepper lamb, it is less spicy than cayenne pepper jemprit. Young time is green. After cooking red is bright.

B. Chilli curls
Curly chili is a type of red chilli which is a hybrid chili, often cultivated by farmers because it has high productivity and faster harvest. Less than 75-120 days. In addition, curly pepper plants are also able to adapt quite well both in the highlands and lowlands, in addition to relatively disease-resistant, high production. Fruit red curly chili shaped elongated and curling with a pointed tip, it feels spicy, the seeds are produced relatively much. Young fruit is green, then brown, after cooking into dark red.

C. Large chili
Big chili is a red chili which is one type of hybrid chili that is in great demand by farmers to be cultivated because it has high economic value. The plants are productive and have a wide market. Large chili has a relatively larger size than curly peppers. The surface is smoother, not wavy. Big chili less spicy than cayenne pepper and curly.

Types of Chili In The World

1. Rocoto

These chili are found in Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Northern Argentina and Ecuador. The shape is almost round and has a thick meat like peppers. This chili will be very spicy if the seeds are black. Rocoto can grow well in temperate and even cold climates. Most rocoto are red, but in the Caribbean and Mexico some are yellow and orange.

2. Chili Kathur

   Chili kathur is a chilli that has a fruit that grows towering facing the sky (ngathur, Java red). Light green when young and will be dark red when it is ripe. When pressed, chili kathur will feel hard because it has a lot of seeds. With the low water content of this type of chilli, allowing this chili to be stored up to 12 days after picking and resistant when transporting long distances. This chili is widely used to mix a variety of spicy dishes.

3. Chili Rawit

    Cayenne pepper has a smaller form of red chili or curly chili but has a level of spiciness reaches 50,000-100,000 on Scoville scale. In addition to Indonesia, chili is quite popular in other Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia.
    In English, the pepper is known as Thai Pepper or bird's eye chili pepper. In Indonesia, cayenne pepper is usually used as a basic ingredient to make chili, salad, and other spicy foods. In addition, cayenne pepper is also made into chili oil and used as a complement to fried foods.

4. Big Red Chili

   Red chili has a pointed shape and pursed, but some are rounded. The skin is thick and usually tastes less spicy. Red chili is often used as a raw material of various sauce, sauce, and as a mixture of cuisine that is not too spicy other.

5. Chili Numex Twilight (Bolivian Rainbow)

        Chili numex is one of the unusual varieties of chili and developed by New Mexico State university. This chili can grow to 18 inches tall. This chili pepper will be purple initially, then it will turn yellow and orange, when it is cooked it will turn into become. This chili will produce a blend of colors that give a rainbow effect on the leaves of plants are green.

6. Curly Chili

     As the name implies, curly pepper is curly, thin, and long. There are 2 types of curly peppers are red curly peppers and green curly peppers. Curly chili has a smaller size compared with large red peppers. Usually curly peppers are used on spicy food preparations.

7. Chili Jalapeno (Capsicum Annuum)

     This chili comes from Mexico, the color is dark green and red and has a shape similar to a bullet. Other than in the form of intact / fresh, jalapeno usually also available in dry variations disebt with chipotles. This chili has a very spicy taste bite because it is usually chili is sold in the form of pickles and packed in a bottle. This chili has a spiciness level of 2,500-8,000 Scoville Scale. Chili is widely used to make pickles, mustard, or can also be cooked using vegetable oil.

8. Chili Satan

    Satan's chili is the hottest chilli in the World. These chili are from northeastern India (Assam, Nagaland, and Manipur) and Bangladesh. The level of this chilli pepper reaches 1.001.304 Scoville Scale and that means the level of this chilli spiciness exceeds the cayenne pepper.
      This chili has a wrinkled shape and small size fat. Assam residents have the belief that if you consume a lot of these devilish chilies then it can help fight rheumatic diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, lowering high blood pressure, and cholesterol.

9. Chili Gendol / Gendot

     In West Java, this chili is called Chili Gendot or Chili Bendot, while in Central Java this chili is called Chili Gendol because it has a swollen or swollen form. This chili comes from the Yucatan Peninsula and has a spiciness level of 100,000-350,000 Scoville Scale. Chili is mostly found in plantations around Bandung and in sekiar Dieng Central Java. Mexico is the world's largest producer of chili glycol, and grows around Yucatan, Campeche and Quintana Roo. In addition to this in Belize, Costa Rica, Texas, and California found commercial plantations of gendot chili. Chili gendot has a unique aroma, which is a blend of fruit and flowers. This chili has a variety of colors, namely green, orange light, yellow, and orange. In sunda, chili is cooked in a variety of stir-fry and other spicy dishes.

10. Bell Pepper or Peppers

     As you know, Bell pepper or what we often call with Peppers is a chili that has 4 color variants of red, yellow, green, and orange. Usually Peppers Green tastes more bitter when compared with other color peppers. These chili types are grouped into less spicy chili or "sweet peppers".
     Paprika has a unique shape resembling a bell, large, textured crisp and hard but on the inside hollow. Paprika is widely sold in fresh condition and has been processed into a powder that can provide a moderate spicy effect on food. While fresh Peppers are often used as a mixture for cooking ingredients such as salad, pizza, even used to beautify the food. This chili has a taste that tends to sweet but when cooked sweet will be reduced.

11. Pimento or Chili Chilli

     Pimento or chili pepper has a large, red and heart-shaped shape and has a length of about 7-10 cm and a width of 5-7 cm. This type of chili has a sweet, juicy, and more flavorful fruit flesh when compared to red peppers. However some varieties of daroi pimento has a fairly spicy taste. This chili is widely used as a mixture of pickles.

12. Anaheim Pepper

     Anaheim is actually the name of an area given to this type of chili when a farmer named Emilio Ortega brings this chili seed to the Anaheim area in early 1900. This chili also has another name that is California Chile or Magdalena. This type of chili that grows in New Mexico has a higher level of spiciness, which is about 4500-5000 Scoville Units.

13. Serrano Pepper

      This chili has a more spicy taste than the Jalpeno chili. These chili are from the mountains of Mexico, and are usually consumed in a raw state. This chili has a spiciness level of 10,000-23,000 Scoville Rating. This form of chili has a resemblance to cayenne pepper from Indonsia, but in fact both are different species.

14. Cayenne or Guinea Pepper

      This chili is from the town of Cayenne in French Guiana. This chili is a spicy red chilli that is widely used for food seasoning, whether in whole or powder form, even chili is also used for medical purposes. This chili has a spiciness level of 30,000-50,000 Scoville Rating.

15. Thai Pepper

      Scoville rating: 50.000-100.000. Chili is widely found in Thailand and neighboring countries such as Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, and surrounding areas.

16. Red Savina Pepper

      Scoville rating: 350.000-580.000. This chili is a special varieties of Habanero chili and is specially developed to get more spicy, large, and heavy chili. Chili Red Savina was developed by Frank Garcia in California. Until now the method is still secret and not known by the public.

17. Bishop Crown Pepper

      This chili is probably the most strange chili that ever existed. This chili is also known as Peruvian Hot Pepper.

18. Chilli Tepin

      Chilli Tepin is a wild chili that grows in Central America, Mexico, and Southwest USA. This chili is often referred to as the "mother of all kinds of chili" as it is considered the oldest species of Capsicum Annuum. The name Tepin comes from the Nahuatl language which means "tick". The Texans named Tepin as an official chili from Texas in 1997, two years after Jalapeno became an official chili in Texas.

19. Datil Pepper

    This chili is widely produced in St. Augustine, Florida. This chili came from CUba and in 1880 was brought by a jelly maker named S.B Valls. This chili has a shape similar to red chili pepper and is often referred to as sheep or Tom Yum chili.

20. Peter Pepper

       Scoville rating 10,000-23,000. This chili is a rare chili that is very famous for its shape like a penis. This chili is a type of Capsicum annuum, although it is not officially recognized as a cultivar of this species. Tedapat 3 variants Petet Pepper is red, yellow, orange. This chili is commonly found in eastern Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Mexico and was popularized in the United States for the first time by Frank X. Tolbert. Because it has a very high Scoville rating, Peter Pepper has proposed more for ornamental plants than to be consumed.

Chili is a source of vitamins A, B, C and E, as well as added minerals such as molybdenum, manganese, folate, potassium, thiamin, and copper. Chili contains seven times more vitamin C than oranges. In the Indian state, chili has been incorporated into Ayurvedic medicines, and is used as a tonic to ward off various diseases. Chili is also good to help slimming the body, because of its ability to burn calories easily. Chili also stimulates appetite, helps to cleanse the lungs, and also stimulates the digestive system. Chili contains many amazing chemical compounds, which are known to have benefits for the prevention of many diseases. 

Chili contains compounds such as alkaloids, capsaicin, which gives a strong spicy flavor. Initial laboratory studies in animal experiments show that capsaicin has anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, has analgesic and anti-diabetic properties. It can also reduce HDL cholesterol levels in obese people. Fresh red and green chili is a rich source of vitamin C-. At 100 g fresh chili provides about 143.7 mg, or about 240% RDA. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that dissolves in water. It is necessary for the formation of collagen in the body. Collagen is the major structural protein in the body necessary to maintain the integrity of blood vessels, skin, organs, and bones. Eating foods rich in vitamin C can help the body protected from scurvy, boost immunity, anti-free radicals in the body. Chili is also rich in other types of antioxidants, such as vitamin A and flavonoids such as ß-carotene, Î ± -carotene, lutein, zea-xanthin, and cryptoxanthin. The antioxidant substances in chili help protect the body from the harmful effects of harmful free radicals, which can be produced by stress, and other conditions of the disease.

Chili also contains many minerals, such as potassium, manganese, iron, and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cells and body fluids that help control heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase. Chili is also included in a group of vitamin B-complex producers, such as niacin, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin and thiamin (vitamin B-1). This vitamin is important for the body, and must be obtained through an external source. The highest content of vitamins and minerals in Chili. The following are provided per 100 g Chili: 240% vitamin C- (ascorbic acid), 39% vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), 32% vitamin A, 13% iron, 14% copper, 7% potassium, non cholesterol. Here are the nutritional content in chili, as well as some of the benefits of chili for health:

Chili also contains many minerals, such as potassium, manganese, iron, and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cells and body fluids that help control heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase. Chili is also included in a group of vitamin B-complex producers, such as niacin, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin and thiamin (vitamin B-1). This vitamin is important for the body, and must be obtained through an external source. The highest content of vitamins and minerals in Chili. The following are provided per 100 g Chili: 240% vitamin C- (ascorbic acid), 39% vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), 32% vitamin A, 13% iron, 14% copper, 7% potassium, non cholesterol. Here are the nutritional content in chili, as well as some health benefits for chili: 

The nutritional content of chili per 100gr serving.
Energy 40 Kcal 2%
Carbohydrates 8.81 g 7%
Protein 1.87 g 3%
Total Fat 0.44 g 2%
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Dietary Fiber 1.5 g 3%
Sodium 9 mg 0.5%
Potassium 322 mg 7%

Folate 23 mg 6%
Niacin 1,244 mg 8%
Pantothenic acid 0.201 mg 4%
Pyridoxine 0.506 mg 39%
Riboflavin 0.086 mg 6.5%
Thiamin 0.72 mg 6%
Vitamin A 952 IU 32%
Vitamin C 143.7 mg 240%
Vitamin E 0.69 mg 4.5%
Vitamin K 14 mg 11.5%

Calcium 14 mg 1.5%
Copper 0.129 mg 14%
Iron 1.03 mg 13%
Magnesium 23 mg 6%
Manganese 0.187 mg 8%
Phosphorus 43 mg 6%
Selenium 0.5 mg 1%
Zinc 0.26 mg 2%
Carotene-ß 534 mg -
Carotene-Î ± 36 ug -
Cryptoxanthin-ß 40 ug -
Lutein-zeaxanthin 709 mg -

Benefits and efficacy of chili for health Capsaicin: Chili contains vitamin C and Vitamin A contains beta-carotene, which is a powerful type of antioxidant. Antioxidants are useful to counteract the effects of free radicals, so it can keep the skin to stay young. Usually, free radical materials will participate in the circulation of the body, and will cause massive cell damage. Free radicals can damage the nerves and blood vessels, which can lead to diseases such as diabetes. Detoxicants: Chili also acts as a natural detoxifier, as it can clean up waste from our body and will increase nutrient intake to body tissues. Chili also acts as a digestive detoxicants, thus helping in the process of digesting food. Pain Relievers: Chili will stimulate the release of endorphins that cause natural painkillers. Because of this, chili will reduce the pain due to herpes, diabetes, rheumatism and muscle spasms in the shoulder.

Antibiotics: Chili will accelerate bring fresh blood to the infection area, allowing blood to quickly fight infection. White blood cells and leukocytes are formed due to war between blood and bacteria.
Brain: Capsaicin stimulates the brain to release endorphins, and this will provide a sense of pleasure when swallowed. This is the reason why people become addicted to eating chili peppers, even though they have been cured by the feeling of spiciness. 
Cancer: It is well known that, vitamin C, beta-carotene and folic acid found in chili reduce the risk of colon cancer. Chili like red chili contains lycopene cartonoid, which is useful to prevent cancer.
Heart Attack: Chili contains vitamin B6 and folic acid. Vitamin B reduces high homocysteine ​​levels. High homocysteine ​​levels can cause damage to blood vessels, and this is associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke. In addition, chili will also turn homocysteine ​​into another molecule that is beneficial for cholesterol levels.
Lung disease: Chili helps to overcome stuffy nose, by increasing metabolism. This will help widen the airways to the lungs that will reduce asthma and wheezing. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals such as benzopyrene, which can damage vitamin A in the body. Vitamin A in chili will reduce pneumonia and emphysema, caused due to smoking habits.

Side effects of consuming chili So great the nutritional value and benefits of chili, but in some cases, chili can also cause problems. To that end, limit your consumption to chili that is beyond your body's ability. The pungent flavor of chili is the content of capsaicin, although beneficial, but it is eaten to cause severe irritation, and a burning sensation in the mouth, tongue and throat. Initially capsaicin in chili will cause inflammation, when it begins to contact with the mucous membrane smooth in the oral cavity, throat and stomach, thus immediately generating heat sensation through free nerve endings in the mucosa. Eating a cold yoghurt can help reduce the burning sensation, as yogurt will dilute the concentration of capsaicin and prevent contact with the abdominal wall. Avoid touching the eyes with contaminated fingers of the substance from the open chili.

Rinse eyes in chilli, thoroughly throw eyes in cold water to reduce irritation. Chili can also worsen the condition of gastro esophageal reflux (GER) present. Certain chemical compounds such as aflatoxin (the result of fungi) found in chili have been known to cause cancer of the stomach, liver and intestines. For that, make sure the chili you get is fresh and healthy chili.