CIGARETTES FOR US AND PSYCHOLOGY
CIGARETTES FOR US AND PSYCHOLOGY
Indonesia is the largest producer of cigarettes to be exported worldwide. As an environmentalist I would like to share some info to smokers around the world. There may be many who know the impact or dangers of smoking, both for themselves and for the people around and the environment. Warning of the dangers of smoking are often encountered in every pack of cigarettes. However, it seems that this warning does not affect a person to quit smoking.
A cigarette that looks small is actually very dangerous and can damage health. According to Terry and Horn, inside a cigarette contained 3 thousand kinds of chemicals and almost all of them are categorized as dangerous.
Here are some chemicals contained in cigarettes:
1. ACROLEIN; A colorless liquid-shaped substance is obtained by taking fluid from glyceril or by drying it. Basically this substance contains alcohol that must be very disturbing health.
2. CARBON MONOXIDA; Odorless gas. This substance is produced from incomplete combustion of carbon elements. If this carbon monoxide gets into the body and is carried by hemoglobin into the muscles of the body. A single molecule of hemoglobin can carry four oxygen molecules. If in the hemoglobin there is carbon monoxide, resulting in a person will lack of oxygen.
3. NICOTINE; Oily liquid is colorless. This substance can inhibit hunger. So cause a person feel not hungry for smoking a cigarette.
4. AMMONIA; A colorless gas, composed of nitrogen and hydrogen. It has a very sharp and stimulating odor. This substance very quickly enter the body cells and if injected a little in the bloodstream will make fainting or coma.
5. FORMIC ACID; Colorless liquid, sharp smell, can move freely and can make blisters.
6. HYDROGEN CYANIDE; Gas colorless, odorless and no taste. This substance is the lightest and most flammable. Cyanide contains harmful toxins and if put directly into the body will result in death.
7. NITROUS OXIDE; The gas is colorless and if sucked it can cause loss of consideration and make the pain. This substance was originally for an anesthetic substance during surgery.
9. PHENOL; This substance consists of a mixture of crystals produced from the distillation of organic substances such as wood and char. Phenol can be bound in proteins and block the enzyme work.
10. ACETOL; This substance is the result of aldehyde heating and evaporating with alcohol.
11. HYDROGEN SULFIDE; Flammable and odorous gas. This substance blocks the oxidation of enxym (iron containing pigment).
12. PYRIDINE; Fluid colorless and smelling sharp. This substance is able to change alcohol as solvent and pest killer.
13. METHYL CHLORIDE: a mixture of the top-valve matter over which hydrogen and carbon are the main elements. This substance is a highly toxic organic compound and steam is the same as an anesthetic.
14. METHANOL; Light, volatile liquid and burning. If taken and sucked it can result in blindness and death.
15. TAR; Thick brown or black viscous liquid obtained by distillation of wood and charcoal also from tobacco sap. which consists of more than 4,000 chemicals in which 60 are carcinogenic. It is this substance that causes lung cancer.
16. CYANIDE, a chemical compound containing cyano groups.
17. BENZENE, also known as benzene, an organic chemical compound that is flammable and colorless.
18. CADMIUM, a highly toxic and radioactive metal.
19. ARSENIC, a substance found in rat poison.
Content of Substance In Cigarette With Its Effect To Health, Cigarettes contain approximately 4000 more elements and at least 200 of them are harmful to health. The main toxins in cigarettes are tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. In addition, in a cigarette also contains other chemicals that are not less toxic.
Although so many types of chemicals contained therein, but only nicotine and tar are listed in cigarette packaging. By knowing the content in the cigarette is expected you can reduce or stop smoking before the chemicals in it enter and spread into the body. So it can trigger the emergence of various types of diseases arise. Besides causing many types of cancer, heart disease, lung disease, gastrointestinal disease, adverse effects on birth, and emphysema, there has been much research to prove that cigarettes are very dependent.
Psychological scientists are generally suited in the opinion that the subject of psychology is behavior, but there is still a huge difference in their opinion of exactly what things should be included in the category of behavior. In the broadest sense, this behavior includes everything a person does or experiences. Ideas, dreams, gland reactions, running, moving things, they are behaviors. In other words, behavior is any response (reaction, response, answer, reply) done by an organism. Whereas in a narrower sense, behavior only includes general observable or objective reactions . Almost the same as the definition, Atkinson et al (without years) states that behavior is the activity of a detectable organism. The emergence of the behavior of these organisms is influenced by the stimulus factors received, both internal and external stimuli stimulus.
As with other behaviors, smoking behavior arises because of internal factors (biological factors and psychological factors, such as smoking behaviors performed to reduce stress) and external factors (social environmental factors, such as affected by peers). Smoking behavior is the activity of smoking or inhaling cigarette smoke by using a pipe or cigarette. According to formerly smoking behavior is referred to as a habit or addiction, but nowadays smoking is referred to as tobacco dependency or tobacco dependence. Tobacco dependency alone can be defined as the use of persistent tobacco use, usually more than half a pack of cigarettes per day, in the presence of additional distress caused by the need for tobacco repeatedly. Smoking behavior can also be defined as subject activity related to smoking behavior, as measured by smoking intensity, smoking time, and smoking function in everyday life . While, that smoking behavior is formed through four stages: preparation, initiation, becoming a smoker, and maintenance of smoking.
Based on the above description it can be concluded that smoking behavior is activity of sucking or inhaling cigarette smoke by using pipe or cigarette which is done permanently and formed through four stages, namely: preparation stage, initiation, becoming a smoker, and maintenance of smoking.
The psychological impact of smoking is the onset of influence on the smoker's thoughts, feelings, and behavior. The psychological effects are:
1. Addiction (hooked)
Nicotine in cigarette smoke is an addictive substance, as other addictive groups such as heroin, morphine, marijuana, amphetamines, alcohol, and other psychotrophores.
2. Tolerance and Dependencies
The addictive effect will develop physiologically to the effect of tolerance (dose addition). People who have for years become smokers, nicotine tolerance levels in the body has been high enough
In the end the psychological smoking will cause dependency effects (dependence) that causes the smoker to have a reaction when the substance dropped out suddenly. Some of the signs and symptoms of the substance breakdown are: weak body, headache, indigestion, lack of concentration, lethargy, difficulty thinking, coughing, and others. This complaint is temporary - the duration of the complaint depends on the length and severity of a smoker.
If the withdrawal symptoms of the niocotin substance can be passed through with a strong determination, then a smoker will be able to quit smoking. Therefore patience and a strong will are necessary for the success of quitting smoking. Conditions of will and strong intentions, can be seen when smokers perform fasting.
So great is the effects of addiction and dependence on cigarettes, so it can be a link to dependence on other more dangerous addictive substances such as heroin, morphine, alcohol, and other psychotropic substances. CIGARETTE is a GATE DOOR addicted to other addictive substances.
3. Smoking Lifestyle
The general condition of smokers in Indonesia today is starting to smoke at a young age (15-19 years), as a way of life to look trendy, cool, macho, slang, and others. This greatly affects the psychological condition by ignoring its negative impact on health. This condition is aggravated by the formation of misleading opinions through cigarette advertisements and sponsorship in youth activities.
As for adults or those over the age of 19, smoking seems to have become a cultural habit. It has even been regarded as a necessity, both during breaks and in social relationships.
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