OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY


hello again, welcome back to my blog. Today we will talk about Occupational Health and Safety. if there is something you will ask please let me know by write down bellow. ^^
      Occupational health and safety are areas related to the health, safety, and well-being of people working in an institution or project site. The objective is to maintain the health and safety of the working environment, as well as to protect co-workers, working families, consumers, and others who may also be affected by the working environment. Occupational health and safety are important to morality, legality and finances. All organizations have an obligation to ensure that workers and others involved remain in safe condition at all times. Occupational Safety Practices include prevention, sanctioning, and compensation, as well as wound healing and care for workers and providing health care and sick leave. Related to occupational health sciences, safety engineering, industrial engineering, chemistry, health physics, organizational and industrial psychology, ergonomics, and occupational health psychology. Physical and mechanical hazards.

Workers who work at risk without adequate safety equipment


     Example : Riki is 22 years old he is a worker in a printing factory. Accidentally riki hand pulled toward the machine when the machine is active. He lost his fingers without getting any compensation at all. Physical hazards are a major source of accidents in many industries. Such hazards may be inevitable in many industries such as construction and mining, but over time, humans develop security methods and procedures to manage those risks. Child labor faces a more specific problem than adult workers. Falling is the most important occupational accident and cause of death in the workplace, especially in construction, extraction, transportation, and building maintenance.


   Machinery is a key component in industries such as manufacturing, mining, construction, and agriculture, and can endanger workers. Many machineries involving the removal of components at high speed, have sharp edges, hot surfaces, and other hazards that potentially crush, burn, cut, puncture, and provide impact and injure workers if not used safely.

  Narrow workplaces that have ventilation and limited entrance / exit, such as military tanks, aqueducts, etc. are also dangerous. Noise also provides its own dangers that can result in hearing loss. Extreme heat temperature can provide heat stress, fatigue, cramps, rash , Obscure safety glasses, dehydration, causing sweaty hands, dizziness, and others that may compromise safety. At extreme cold temperatures, the risks faced are hypothermia, frostbite, and so on. Electrical shocks pose a risk of danger such as electric shock, burns, and falling from electrical installation facilities.


Chemical and biological hazards
- Biological hazards
- Bacteria
- Virus
- Fungi
- The pathogen of the blood
- Tuberculosis
- Chemical hazards
- Acid
- Bases
- Heavy metal
- Solvent
- Petroleum
- Particulate
- Asbestos
- Silica
- Smoke
- Reactive chemicals
- Fire, combustible material
- Explosion

Psychological and social problems
1. Stress due to work hours is too high or not timed
2. Violence within the organization
3. Oppression
4. Sexual harassment
5. The presence of an unpleasant substance in the work environment, such as cigarettes and alcohol.

Health and safety based on industry


    Especifically on specific sectors and industries. Construction workers will require the prevention of falling hazards, while fishermen face the risk of drowning. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics says that fisheries, aviation, timber, agriculture, mining, metalworking and transportation are the most dangerous industrial sectors.

Construction
   Construction is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world, resulting in the greatest number of deaths among other sectors. The risk of falling is the highest cause of accidents. The use of adequate safety equipment such as guardrails and helmets, as well as the implementation of security procedures such as non-permanent ladders and scaffolding can reduce the risk of accidents. In 2010, the National Health Interview Survey identifies organizational factors of work and psychosocial and exposure to chemicals / physical occupations that are able to increase some of the risks in OSH. Among all construction workers in the United States, 44% working with non arrangement standards, while workers in other sectors are only 19%. In addition 55% of construction workers have insecurity experience at work, compared to 32% of workers in other sectors. 24% of construction workers are exposed to non-working smoke, compared to 10% of workers in other sectors.

Agriculture

Tractor with rollover protection system
Agricultural workers have a risk of injury, lung disease due to exposure to engine fumes, noise, skin diseases, and cancer caused by chemicals such as pesticides. In industrial agriculture, accidents involve the use of tools and agricultural machinery. The most common crash is the overturned tractor. Pesticides and other chemicals used in agriculture are also harmful to workers' health, capable of causing disruption to the health of sex organs and abnormalities of infants.

The number of working hours of agricultural workers in the United States shows that 37% of workers have 48 hours of work a week, and 24% work more than 60 hours a week. It is believed that the high work hours result in high risk of accidents. And of all workers in the agricultural sector, 85% more often work outdoors than other sectors that are only 25%.

Service sector
A number of jobs in the service sector are related to the manufacturing industry and other primary industries, but are not exposed to the same risks. The major health problems of employment in the service sector are obesity and psychological stress as well as overtime.

Mining and petroleum
Workers in the petroleum and mining sectors are at risk of exposure to hazardous chemicals and fumes. Skin risks are exposed to harmful chemicals, smoke inhalation, to other risks such as homesick due to work location away from home, even to offshore areas.

Bibliography
^ Oak Ridge National Lab Safety Document
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^ "Hazardous Work". International Labor Organization. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
^ International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) (2011). Children in hazardous work What we know What we need to do (PDF). International Labor Organization. ISBN 978-92-2-124918-4. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
^ "Fall Injuries Prevention in the Workplace". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
^ "The International Hazard Datasheets on Occupations (HDO)". International Labor Organization. Retrieved on December 26, 2012. The International Hazard Datasheets on Occupations is a multipurpose information resource containing information on the hazards, risks and notions of prevention related to a specific occupation. The datasheets are intended for those professionally concerned with health and safety at work.
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^ "Heat Stress". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on August 8, 2012.
^ "Cold Stress". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
^ "Electrical Safety". NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
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^ "NIOSH Workplace Safety & Health Topic: Agricultural Injuries". Cdc.gov. 2012-07-13. Retrieved dated 2013-02-15.
^ "NIOSH Pesticide Poisoning Monitoring Program Protects Farmworkers". Cdc.gov. 2009-07-31. Retrieved dated 2013-02-15.
^ "CDC - NHIS - Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Sector Profile Page - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 28, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
^ Health and Safety Executive (2009): A Guide to Safety and Health Regulation in Great Britain. 4th edition. ISBN 978-0-7176-6319-4
^ Koester, Frank (April 1912). "Our Stupendous Yearly Waste: The Death Toll of Industry". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXIII: 713-715. Retrieved 2009-07-10 date.
^ OSAH Safety
^ Ladou, Joseph (2006). Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-144313-4.
^ Roughton, James (2002). Developing an Effective Safety Culture: A Leadership Approach (1st ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-7411-3.
^ Viscusi, W. Kip (2008). "Job Safety". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN 978-0865976658. OCLC 23779426.
^ OHSAS 18000 series: (derived from a British Standard, OHSAS is intended to be compatible with ISO 9000 and 14000 series standards, but is not an ISO standard)

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